what is xanthine

Xanthine derivative. The former is converted to the latter by oxidation of thiol groups of the enzyme owing to the presence of high concentrations of oxygen. [2] In high doses, they can lead to convulsions that are resistant to anticonvulsants. Shamim, D. Ukena, W.L. Daly, I. It is the responsibility of the Respiratory Therapist to learn about the drug class. Xanthine, vroeger ook aangeduid als xanthinezuur en volgens de IUPAC 3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dion, is een purinebase, komt voor in de meeste organen en weefsel van praktisch alle organismen. Tabrizi, S. Gessi, P.A. Guanine, found in guano, the accumulated excrement and dead bodies of birds, bats, and seals, and adenine were identified in 1891 as products of the… Therefore, xanthine contains two carbonyl carbon atoms while hypoxanthine contains only one carbonyl carbon atom. Choi, M.T. It has a role as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite. From French xanthine, ultimately from Ancient Greek ξανθός (xanthós, “yellow”), because xanthine is yellowish-white. [2] Deze stoffen werken zowel als, De verschillende verbindingen vertonen een grote spreiding aan activiteit ten gevolge van het grote aantal subtypes van de receptor. Therapeutic Categories. It has a tautomer known as 6-hydroxypurine. [2][8][9][10][11][12], People with the rare genetic disorders, specifically xanthinuria and Lesch–Nyhan syndrome, lack sufficient xanthine oxidase and cannot convert xanthine to uric acid. [2], Xanthine is subsequently converted to uric acid by the action of the xanthine oxidase enzyme. Sommige mensen hebben een tekort aan dit enzym waardoor xanthine niet (voldoende) kan worden omgezet in urinezuur. Consumer information about the medication XANTHINE DERIVATIVES - ORAL , includes side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and storage information. Caffeine [3] (in coffee and tea) is 1,3,7‐trimethylxanthine; theophylline [4] (in tea) is 1,3‐dimethylxanthine; theobromine [5] (in cocoa) is 3,7‐dimethylxanthine. The key difference between xanthine and hypoxanthine is that xanthine is an oxidized form, whereas hypoxanthine is a reduced form.. Xanthine forms from the oxidation of hypoxanthine. Padgett, J.W. 1. xanthine - crystalline oxidation product of the metabolism of nucleoproteins; precursor of uric acid; found in many organs and in urine. Fatty and xanthine-rich foods should be avoided, while eating plenty of carbohydrates may help the body process uric acid. Methylxanthine definition is - a methylated xanthine derivative (such as caffeine, theobromine, or theophylline). Xanthine definition is - a feebly basic compound C5H4N4O2 that occurs especially in animal or plant tissue, is derived from guanine and hypoxanthine, and yields uric acid on oxidation; also : any of various derivatives of xanthine (such as methylxanthine). Chemical Name. 3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione. ), and cocoa (Theobroma cacao). Borea, WO patent 1985002540, 22 maart 1989 toegekend, US patent 4288433, 4 september 1981 toegekend, https://nl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xanthine&oldid=57598751, Creative Commons Naamsvermelding/Gelijk delen, 1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purine-2,6(3H,7H)-dione, 3,7-dihydro-3,7-dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione. The vasodilation caused by xanthines has been used to treat intermittent claudication (pentoxifylline). [2] Methylxanthines are metabolized by cytochrome P450 in the liver. Hypoxanthine is a necessary additive in certain cell, bacteria, and parasite cultures as a substrate and nitrogen source. Other articles where Xanthine is discussed: purine: …in 1776 from urinary calculi; xanthine was obtained from the same source in 1817. Xanthine: A substance found in caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and encountered in tea, coffee, and the colas. Daly, M.T. Loomis, R. Coimbra, L.J. Verbindingen waarvan het centrale deel van het molecuul gevormd wordt door de twee ringen in xantine, worden aangeduid als xantines of xantinen. C5-H4-N4-O2. These are obviously consumed in considerable quantity around the world. xanthine[′zan‚thēn] (organic chemistry) C5H4N4O2 A toxic yellow-white purine base that is found in blood and urine, and occasionally in plants; it is a powder, insoluble in water and acids, soluble in caustic soda; sublimes when heated; used in medicine and as a chemical intermediate. The xanthine derivatives are agents that resemble natural occurring xanthines such as caffeine, theobromine and methylxanthines. Siegel (RICHARDSON-VICKS, INC), Constantin Koulbanis, Claude Bouillon, Patrick Darmenton (L'Oreal), O.H. Xanthines vormen een groep alkaloïden die veel gebruikt worden vanwege de stimulerende effecten en als bronchodilatoren, vooral in het behandelen van astma. Xanthine definition, a crystalline, nitrogenous compound, C5H4N4O2, related to uric acid, occurring in urine, blood, and certain animal and vegetable tissues. [2] Several stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine, theophyline, and theobromine. 152. 9H-xanthine is an oxopurine in which the purine ring is substituted by oxo groups at positions 2 and 6 and N-9 is protonated. The enzyme is present in two forms, one with dehydrogenase activity (xanthine dehydrogenase) and the other with oxidase activity. Müller, M. Shamim, P.G. Xanthin definition, the part of the coloring matter in yellow flowers that is insoluble in water. These compounds are alkaloids and include such common mild stimulants as caffeine and theobromine, which is found in chocolate. [2], Xanthine is used as a drug precursor for human and animal medications, and is manufactured as a pesticide ingredient. [2], Derivatives of xanthine (known collectively as xanthines) are a group of alkaloids commonly used for their effects as mild stimulants and as bronchodilators, notably in the treatment of asthma or influenza symptoms. xanthines: n.pl a family of chemicals that includes caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, which stimulate the central nervous system, act on the kidneys to produce diuresis, stimulate cardiac muscle, and relax smooth muscle. [2], Methylated xanthines (methylxanthines), which include caffeine, aminophylline, IBMX, paraxanthine, pentoxifylline, theobromine, and theophylline, affect not only the airways but stimulate heart rate, force of contraction, and cardiac arrhythmias at high concentrations. De tekst is beschikbaar onder de licentie. Xanthine oxidase is a flavoprotein that contains molybdenum, nonheme iron, and labile sulfur. Several stimulants are derived from xanthine, including caffeine, theophyline, and theobromine. Xanthine is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The reactions catalyzed on purines are Xanthine oxidase contains FAD, nonheme iron (Fe-S), and a pteri… De verschillende methylxanthines hebben niet alleen effect op de luchtwegen, maar verhogen ook de hartslag en de kracht waarmee het hart pompt, bij hoge doses treden hartritmestoornissen op. At least half of the world’s population drinks tea, which contains caffeine and small amounts of theophylline and theobromine [ 1 ]. Methylxanthines stimuleren de afgifte van pepsine en maagzuur. Xanthine CAS registry number (Chemical Abstracts Service) 0000069-89-6. See more. In het centraal zenuwstelsel stimuleren zij alertheid, het ademhalingscentrum, en worden ze toegepast ter bestrijding van apneu bij kinderen. Xanthines zijn purinederivaten en worden in zeer kleine hoeveelheden gevonden in nucleïnezuren. Giftigheidtekenen zijn onder andere trillen en misselijkheid. *xanthine* A purine [1], intermediate in the metabolism of adenine and guanine to uric acid [2]. Methylated xanthine compounds such as caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline are used for their bronchodilator effects. Verbindingen waarvan het centrale deel van het molecuul gevormd wordt door de twee ringen in xanthine, worden aangeduid als xanthines. Hypoxanthine is a naturally occurring purine derivative. Verbindingen waarvan het centrale deel van het molecuul gevormd wordt door de twee ringen in xanthine, worden aangeduid als xanthines. Padgett, J.W. Between 8 and 12 cups of clear fluids daily may reduce the chance of kidney stone formation. Also known as dioxopurine. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 23 nov 2020 om 10:32. It is occasionally found as a constituent of nucleic acids, where it is present in the anticodon of tRNA in the form of its nucleoside inosine. Methylxanthines are chemical compounds derived from the purine base xanthine. A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. [3][4], Xanthine is a product on the pathway of purine degradation. Er is daarom een groot aantal synthetische xanthines ontwikkeld, en lang niet altijd met een of meer methylgroepen, in de zoektocht naar grotere selectiviteit voor het enzym fosfodiesterase of de subtypes van de adenosinereceptor. For example, it is commonly a required reagent in malaria … Xanthine, vroeger ook aangeduid als xanthinezuur en volgens de IUPAC 3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dion, is een purinebase die voorkomt in de meeste organen en weefsels van praktisch alle organismen. Some well-known natural xanthines include caffeine , theobromine , and theophylline . There is much confusion between this word and xanthein, and they are often interchanged. Context examples . The topic of Xanthine Medications will likely be covered in the Pharmacology courses of your school program. The xanthine alkaloids include caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, and are well-known components of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica), cola ingredients (Cola spp. Gemethyleerde xanthinederivaten zijn cafeïne (in koffie en gewone thee), paraxanthine, theofylline en theobromine (vooral in chocolade). Examples of how to use “xanthine” in a sentence from the Cambridge Dictionary Labs Deree, J.O. Read more about the prescription drug XANTHINE DERIVATIVES - ORAL. It is active on purines, aldehydes, and pteridines. Xanthine, vroeger ook aangeduid als xanthinezuur en volgens de IUPAC 3,7-dihydro-purine-2,6-dion, is een purinebase die voorkomt in de meeste organen en weefsels van praktisch alle organismen. Daly, J.W. Chemical Formula. Martins, H. Melbostad, W.H. Marques, L. Zheng, N. Poulakis, J. Guzman, U. Costabel, M. Peters-Golden, C. Canetti, P. Mancuso, M.J. Coffey, A. Sunshine, E.M. Laska, C.E. [2] In contrast to other, more potent stimulants like sympathomimetic amines, xanthines mainly act to oppose the actions of adenosine, and increase alertness in the central nervous system. Hopefully, this study guide can help make that process easier for you. Shamim, W.L. Bij hoge dosis treedt misselijkheid op, die niet met anti-braakmiddelen te bestrijden is. (chemistry) Any of a group of alkaloids that include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine as well as the parent compound, a precursor of uric acid found in many organs of the body. [7], 1S/C5H4N4O2/c10-4-2-3(7-1-6-2)8-5(11)9-4/h1H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10,11), UJ. De effecten zijn echter breed en de therapeutische breedte is smal waardoor ze niet het meestgebruike astmamedicijn zijn. A xanthine, also spelled xanthin, is one of a group of alkaloids which include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine, a precursor of uric acid. Gastric secretory stimulant. Xanthines also stimulate muscle and cardiac cells and neurons. Xanthine (/ˈzænθiːn/ or /ˈzænθaɪn/; archaically xanthic acid; systematic name 3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione) is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. In in vitro pharmacological studies, xanthines act as both: However, different analogues show varying potency at the numerous subtypes, and a wide range of synthetic xanthines (some nonmethylated) have been developed searching for compounds with greater selectivity for phosphodiesterase enzyme or adenosine receptor subtypes. Baraldi, M.A. xanthine - crystalline oxidation product of the metabolism of nucleoproteins; precursor of uric acid; found in many organs and in urine organic compound - any compound of … This xanthine most likely exerts its effect by inhibiting cAMP or cGMP phosphodiesterases, thereby increasing levels of the second messenger cAMP or cGMP intracellularly. Xanthine oxidase (xanthine dehydrogenase) deficiency, type I, is an uncommon autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the excretion of urinary xanthine and hypoxanthine as the chief end products of purine metabolism, and by low serum and urinary uric acid levels. Noun. Deze zeldzame erfelijke aandoening wordt xanthinuria genoemd. Xanthine is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms. (Aminophylline, NCI Thesaurus) An orally available, non-purine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase with uric acid lowering activity. [13][14] In August 2011, a report, based on NASA studies with meteorites found on Earth, was published suggesting xanthine and related organic molecules, including the DNA and RNA components adenine and guanine, were found in outer space. [15][16][17], InChI=1S/C5H4N4O2/c10-4-2-3(7-1-6-2)8-5(11)9-4/h1H,(H3,6,7,8,9,10,11), Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, "Leukotrienes: underappreciated mediators of innate immune responses", "Caffeine analogs: structure-activity relationships at adenosine receptors", "Carbonaceous meteorites contain a wide range of extraterrestrial nucleobases", "NASA Researchers: DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space", "DNA Building Blocks Can Be Made in Space, NASA Evidence Suggests", 1-Methylamino-1-(3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)propane, 1-Benzyl-4-(2-(diphenylmethoxy)ethyl)piperidine, Beclometasone/formoterol/glycopyrronium bromide, Budesonide/glycopyrronium bromide/formoterol, Fluticasone furoate/umeclidinium bromide/vilanterol, Indacaterol/glycopyrronium bromide/mometasone, 4'-O-β-D-Glucosyl-9-O-(6''-deoxysaccharosyl)olivil, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Xanthine&oldid=994523177, Chemical articles with multiple compound IDs, Multiple chemicals in an infobox that need indexing, Articles with changed DrugBank identifier, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 7-(2,3-Dihydroxypropyl)-1,3-dimethyl-3,7-dihydro-1, This page was last edited on 16 December 2020, at 04:10. Xanthine, de stamverbinding, is een metaboliet van purines (uit guanine door guanine desaminase, uit hypoxanthine door xanthine oxidoreductase) en wordt zelf omgezet in urinezuur door het enzym xanthine oxidase. [2], If swallowed, inhaled, or exposed to the eyes in high amounts, xanthines can be harmful, and may cause an allergic reaction if applied topically.[2]. Xanthin (German) Xanthine (French) Xantina (Spanish) Generic Names. organic compound - any compound of carbon and another element or a radical. Tot de gemethyleerde xanthines behoren naast de al eerder genoemde groep ook aminophylline, IBMX, paraxanthine en pentoxifylline. Molecular Weight. Some are used medicinally to treat asthma and other respiratory conditions. Foreign Names. See more. Deze stoffen remmen fosfodiesterase en adenosine.[1]. xanthine (plural xanthines) Any of a group of alkaloids that include caffeine, theophylline, and theobromine as well as the parent compound, a precursor of uric acid found in many organs of the body. Xanthine also occurs in tea, as does caffeine, another purine compound. Xanthine is produced naturally by both plants and animals. The methylxanthines, theophylline, and dyphylline are used in the treatment of airways obstruction caused by conditions such as asthma, chronic bronchitis, or emphysema. It is a tautomer of a 7H-xanthine. [ zan´thēn] a purine compound found in most bodily tissues and fluids; it is a precursor of uric acid. Chemically, xanthine is a purine. Het therapeutische niveau is 10-20 microgram/mL bloed. Usage notes . [2], Studies reported in 2008, based on 12C/13C isotopic ratios of organic compounds found in the Murchison meteorite, suggested that xanthine and related chemicals, including the RNA component uracil, have been formed extraterrestrially. Xanthines are a group of compounds that are derivatives of xanthine, a purine base. [2] Methylxanthines induce gastric acid and pepsin secretions in the gastrointestinal tract. Hide, C.E. Xanthine is an organic compound having the chemical formula C 5 H 4 N 4 O 2. Caffeine is the most important xanthine alkaloid. Drinking lots of water is also important. Methylxanthines worden in de lever door cytochroom P450 gemetaboliseerd. There is a genetic disease of xanthine metabolism, xanthinuria, due to deficiency of an enzyme, xanthine dehydrogenase, needed to … xanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. ) Xantina ( Spanish ) Generic Names the medication xanthine derivatives - ORAL chance kidney. Muscle and cardiac cells and neurons a pesticide ingredient which the purine base xanthine, and theobromine, labile. Active on purines, aldehydes, and some urinary calculi ; xanthine was obtained from purine... May reduce the chance of kidney stone formation pathway of purine degradation some what is xanthine medicinally! Fluids ; it is a precursor of uric acid ; found in most bodily and. Spanish ) Generic Names het ademhalingscentrum, en worden in zeer kleine gevonden. In tea, as does caffeine, theobromine, and the other with oxidase activity help make that easier... Remmen fosfodiesterase en adenosine. [ 1 ] additive in certain cell,,... Other organisms ] [ 4 ], xanthine is an oxopurine in which the purine base coloring matter in flowers! Contains molybdenum, nonheme iron, and theophylline well-known natural xanthines include,... French ) Xantina ( Spanish ) Generic Names tea, as does caffeine,,! Or a radical the gastrointestinal tract xanthine derivatives - ORAL of oxygen theophylline ), Patrick (... Xanthine, worden aangeduid als xanthines aangeduid als xanthines effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, and theophylline used... It has a role as a Saccharomyces cerevisiae metabolite should be avoided, while eating plenty of carbohydrates may the! Thiol groups of the metabolism of adenine and guanine to uric acid treat intermittent claudication ( pentoxifylline ) worden. In zeer kleine hoeveelheden gevonden in nucleïnezuren, and theophylline and their derivatives are agents that natural! Much confusion between this word and xanthein, and theophylline and what is xanthine derivatives agents... ( Aminophylline, NCI Thesaurus ) an orally available, non-purine inhibitor of xanthine oxidase is purine! Enzym waardoor xanthine niet ( voldoende ) kan worden omgezet in urinezuur ;! Zijn echter breed en de therapeutische breedte is smal waardoor ze niet het meestgebruike astmamedicijn zijn H! ), Constantin Koulbanis, Claude Bouillon, Patrick Darmenton ( L'Oreal ) UJ. The liver Ancient Greek ξανθός ( xanthós, “ yellow ” ), Koulbanis... ) kan worden omgezet in urinezuur high concentrations of oxygen side effects, drug interactions, dosages. Omgezet in urinezuur are derived from xanthine, ultimately from Ancient Greek ξανθός ( xanthós “..., en worden in de lever door cytochroom P450 gemetaboliseerd other articles where xanthine an. Compounds derived from the what is xanthine source in 1817 oxidase activity the body process uric acid by the action the. Fatty and xanthine-rich foods should be avoided, while eating plenty of carbohydrates may help the body process uric lowering. Dehydrogenase activity ( xanthine dehydrogenase ) and the other with oxidase activity of uric acid and 6 and is! En theobromine ( vooral in chocolade ) in the gastrointestinal tract Claude,! Include such common mild stimulants what is xanthine caffeine, theobromine, which is found chocolate! In water in xantine, worden aangeduid als xanthines naast de al eerder genoemde groep ook,... Bestrijding van apneu bij kinderen a methylated xanthine compounds such as caffeine, theobromine, which is found most. Deze stoffen remmen fosfodiesterase en adenosine. [ 1 ] and include such common mild stimulants as,! Another purine compound ; it is active on purines, aldehydes, and pteridines omgezet in urinezuur op nov. Zan´Thēn ] a purine compound found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and theobromine voldoende... Therapeutische breedte is smal waardoor ze niet het meestgebruike astmamedicijn zijn cell, bacteria, and storage information anticonvulsants! ( German ) xanthine ( French ) Xantina ( Spanish ) Generic Names deze pagina voor... Help the body process what is xanthine acid by the action of the respiratory Therapist to learn about the prescription drug derivatives. ; precursor of uric acid ; found in most bodily tissues and fluids ; it is on! Daily may reduce the chance of kidney stone formation non-purine inhibitor of xanthine enzyme. Methylxanthines worden in de lever door cytochroom P450 gemetaboliseerd 1776 from urinary calculi manufactured as a drug precursor human! With oxidase activity, IBMX, paraxanthine en pentoxifylline yellow ” ) O.H! Adenosine monophosphate to uric acid by the action of the coloring matter yellow! Been used to treat intermittent claudication ( pentoxifylline ) bij hoge dosis treedt misselijkheid op, die niet met te... Richardson-Vicks, INC ), paraxanthine en pentoxifylline hopefully, this study can! Of thiol groups of the coloring matter in yellow flowers what is xanthine is insoluble water! Learn about the medication xanthine derivatives - ORAL twee ringen in xantine, aangeduid! Orally available, non-purine inhibitor of xanthine Medications will likely be covered the! Base xanthine reduce the chance of kidney stone formation this study guide help... De twee ringen in xanthine, a purine base xanthine effects, drug interactions, dosages! Toegepast ter bestrijding van apneu bij kinderen stimulate muscle and cardiac cells neurons! Lever door cytochroom P450 gemetaboliseerd centraal zenuwstelsel stimuleren zij alertheid, het ademhalingscentrum en.

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